工业废水最新处理技术

1.MOJISHU

MOFENLIFACHANGYONGDEYOUWEILV、NALV、CHAOLVHEFANSHENTOUDENGJISHU。YOUYUMOJISHUZAICHULIGUOCHENGZHONGBUYINRUQITAZAZHI,KEYISHIXIANDAFENZIHEXIAOFENZIWUZHIDEFENLI,YINCICHANGYONGYUGEZHONGDAFENZIYUANLIAODEHUISHOU。RULIYONGCHAOLVJISHUHUISHOUYINRANFEISHUIDEJUYIXICHUNJIANGLIAODENG。MUQIANXIANZHIMOJISHUGONGCHENGYINGYONGTUIGUANGDEZHUYAONANDIANSHIMODEZAOJIAGAO、SHOUMINGDUAN、YISHOUWURANHEJIEGOUDUSAIDENG。BANSUIZHEMOSHENGCHANJISHUDEFAZHAN,MOJISHUJIANGZAIFEISHUICHULILINGYUDEDAOYUELAIYUEDUODEYINGYONG。

2.TIETANWEIDIANJIECHULIJISHU

TIETANWEIDIANJIEFASHILIYONGFe/CYUANDIANCHIFANYINGYUANLIDUIFEISHUIJINXINGCHULIDELIANGHAOGONGYI,YOUCHENGNEIDIANJIEFA、TIEXIEGUOLVFADENG。TIETANWEIDIANJIEFASHIDIANHUAXUEDEYANGHUAHAIYUAN、DIANHUAXUEDIANDUIDUIXUTIDEDIANFUJIZUOYONG、YIJIDIANHUAXUEFANYINGCHANWUDENINGJU、XINSHENGXUTIDEXIFUHECHUANGCENGGUOLVDENGZUOYONGDEZONGHEXIAOYING,QIZHONGZHUYAOSHIYANGHUAHAIYUANHEDIANFUJIJININGJUZUOYONG。TIEXIEJINMEIZAIHANDALIANGDIANJIEZHIDEFEISHUIZHONGSHI,XINGCHENGWUSHUGEWEIXIAODEYUANDIANCHI,ZAITIEXIEZHONGJIARUJIAOTANHOU,TIEXIEYUJIAOTANLIJIECHUJINYIBUXINGCHENGDAYUANDIANCHI,SHITIEXIEZAISHOUDAOWEIYUANDIANCHIFUSHIDEJICHUSHANG,YOUSHOUDAODAYUANDIANCHIDEFUSHI,CONGERJIAKUAILEDIANHUAXUEFANYINGDEJINXING。CIFAJUYOUSHIYONGFANWEIGUANG、CHULIXIAOGUOHAO、SHIYONGSHOUMINGZHANG、CHENGBENDILIANJICAOZUOWEIHUFANGBIANDENGZHUDUOYOUDIAN,BINGSHIYONGFEITIEXIEWEIYUANLIAO,YEBUXUXIAOHAODIANLIZIYUAN,JUYOU“YIFEIZHIFEI”DEYIYI。MUQIANTIETANWEIDIANJIEJISHUYIJINGGUANGFANYINGYONGYUYINRAN、NONGYAO/ZHIYAO、ZHONGJINSHU、SHIYOUHUAGONGJIYOUFENDENGFEISHUIYIJILAJISHENLVYECHULI,QUDELELIANGHAODEXIAOGUO。

3.FentonJILEIFentonYANGHUAFA

典型的Fenton试剂是由Fe2+催化H2O2分解产生˙OH,从而引发有机物的氧化降解反应。由于Fenton法处理废水所需时间长,使用的试剂量 多,而且过量的Fe2+将增大处理后废水中的COD并产生二次污染。

近年来,人们将紫外光、可见光等引入Fenton体系,并研究采用其他过渡金属替代Fe2+,这些方法可显著增强Fenton试剂对有机物的氧化降解能力,减少Fenton试剂的用量,降低处理成本,统称为类Fenton反应。

FentonFAFANYINGTIAOJIANWENHE,SHEBEIJIAOWEIJIANDAN,SHIYONGFANWEIGUANG;JIKEZUOWEIDANDUCHULIJISHUYINGYONG,YEKEYUQITAFANGFALIANYONG,RUYUHUNNINGCHENDIANFA、HUOXINGTANFA、SHENGWUCHULIFADENGLIANYONG,ZUOWEINANJIANGJIEYOUJIFEISHUIDEYUCHULIHUOSHENDUCHULIFANGFA。

4.CHOUYANGYANGHUA

MOUZHIYAOFEISHUIXIANGMUCHOUYANGGONGYILIUCHENG

臭氧是一种强氧化剂,与还原态污染物反应时速度快,使用方便,不产生二次污染,可用于污水的消毒、除色、除臭、去除有机物和降低COD等。单独使用臭氧氧化法造价高、处理成本昂贵,且其氧化反应具有选择性,对某些卤代烃及农药等氧化效果比较差。为此,近年来发展了旨在提高臭氧氧化效率的相关组合技术,其中UV/O3、H2O2/O3、UV/H2O2/O3等组合方式不仅可提高氧化速率和效率,而且能够氧化臭氧单独作用时难以氧化降解的有机物。由于臭氧在水中的溶解度较低,且臭氧产生效率低、耗能大,因此增大臭氧在水中的溶解度、提高臭氧的利用率、研制高效低能耗的臭氧发生装置成为研究的主要方向。

5.CIFENLIJISHU

CIFENLIJISHUSHIJINNIANLAIFAZHANDEYIZHONGXINXINGDELIYONGFEISHUIZHONGZAZHIKELIDECIXINGJINXINGFENLIDESHUICHULIJISHU。DUIYUSHUIZHONGFEICIXINGHUORUOCIXINGDEKELI,LIYONGCIXINGJIEZHONGJISHUKESHITAMENJUYOUCIXING。

CIFENLIJISHUYINGYONGYUFEISHUICHULIYOUSANZHONGFANGFA:ZHIJIECIFENLIFA、JIANJIECIFENLIFAHEWEISHENGWU—CIFENLIFA。MUQIANYANJIUDECIXINGHUAJISHUZHUYAOBAOKUOCIXINGTUANJUJISHU、TIEYANGONGCHENJISHU、TIEFENFA、TIEYANGTIFADENG,JUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDECIFENLISHEBEISHIYUANPANCIFENLIQIHEGAOTIDUCIGUOLVQI。MUQIANCIFENLIJISHUHAICHUYUSHIYANSHIYANJIUJIEDUAN,HAIBUNENGYINGYONGYUSHIJIGONGCHENGSHIJIAN。

6.DIWENDENGLIZISHUICHULIJISHU

DIWENDENGLIZITISHUICHULIJISHU,BAOKUOGAOYAMAICHONGFANGDIANDENGLIZITISHUICHULIJISHUHEHUIGUANGFANGDIANDENGLIZITISHUICHULIJISHU,SHILIYONGFANGDIANZHIJIEZAISHUIRONGYEZHONGCHANSHENGDENGLIZITI,HUOZHEJIANGQITIFANGDIANDENGLIZITIZHONGDEHUOXINGLIZIYINRUSHUIZHONG,KESHISHUIZHONGDEWURANWUCHEDIYANGHUA、FENJIE。

SHUIRONGYEZHONGDEZHIJIEMAICHONGFANGDIANKEYIZAICHANGWENCHANGYAXIACAOZUO,ZHENGGEFANGDIANGUOCHENGZHONGWUXUJIARUCUIHUAJIJIUKEYIZAISHUIRONGYEZHONGCHANSHENGYUANWEIDEHUAXUEYANGHUAXINGWUZHONGYANGHUAJIANGJIEYOUJIWU,GAIXIANGJISHUDUIDINONGDUYOUJIWUDECHULIJINGJIQIEYOUXIAO。CIWAI,YINGYONGMAICHONGFANGDIANDENGLIZITISHUICHULIJISHUDEFANYINGQIXINGSHIKEYILINGHUODIAOZHENG,CAOZUOGUOCHENGJIANDAN,XIANGYINGDEWEIHUFEIYONGYEJIAODI。SHOUFANGDIANSHEBEIDEXIANZHI,GAIGONGYIJIANGJIEYOUJIWUDENENGLIANGLIYONGLVJIAODI,DENGLIZITIJISHUZAISHUICHULIZHONGDEYINGYONGHAICHUZAIYANFAJIEDUAN。

7.DIANHUAXUE(CUIHUA)YANGHUA

DIANHUAXUE(CUIHUA)YANGHUAJISHUTONGGUOYANGJIFANYINGZHIJIEJIANGJIEYOUJIWU,HUOTONGGUOYANGJIFANYINGCHANSHENGQIANGJIZIYOUJI(˙OH)、CHOUYANGDENGYANGHUAJIJIANGJIEYOUJIWU。

DIANHUAXUE(CUIHUA)YANGHUABAOKUOERWEIHESANWEIDIANJITIXI。YOUYUSANWEIDIANJITIXIDEWEIDIANCHANGDIANJIEZUOYONG,MUQIANBEISHOUTUICHONG。SANWEIDIANJISHIZAICHUANTONGDEERWEIDIANJIECAODEDIANJIJIANZHUANGTIANLIZHUANGHUOQITASUIXIEZHUANGGONGZUODIANJICAILIAO,BINGSHIZHUANGTIANDECAILIAOBIAOMIANDAIDIAN,CHENGWEIDISANJI,QIEZAIGONGZUODIANJICAILIAOBIAOMIANNENGFASHENGDIANHUAXUEFANYING。YUERWEIPINGBANDIANJIXIANGBI,SANWEIDIANJIJUYOUHENDADEBIBIAOMIAN,NENGGOUZENGJIADIANJIECAODEMIANTIBI,NENGYIJIAODIDIANLIUMIDUTIGONGJIAODADEDIANLIUQIANGDU,LIZIJIANJUXIAOERWUZHICHUANZHISUDUGAO,SHIKONGZHUANHUANXIAOLVGAO,YINCIDIANLIUXIAOLVGAO、CHULIXIAOGUOHAO。SANWEIDIANJIKEYONGYUCHULISHENGHUOWUSHUI,NONGYAO、RANLIAO、ZHIYAO、HANFENFEISHUIDENGNANJIANGJIEYOUJIFEISHUI,JINSHULIZI,LAJISHENLVYEDENG。

8.FUSHEJISHU

20SHIJI70NIANDAIQI,SUIZHEDAXINGGUYUANHEDIANZIJIASUQIJISHUDEFAZHAN,FUSHEJISHUYINGYONGZHONGDEFUSHEYUANWENTIZHUBUDEDAOGAISHAN。LIYONGFUSHEJISHUCHULIFEISHUIZHONGWURANWUDEYANJIUYINQILEGEGUODEGUANZHUHEZHONGSHI。YUCHUANTONGDEHUAXUEYANGHUAXIANGBI,LIYONGFUSHEJISHUCHULIWURANWU,BUXUJIARUHUOZHIXUSHAOLIANGJIARUHUAXUESHIJI,BUHUICHANSHENGERCIWURAN,JUYOUJIANGJIEXIAOLVGAO、FANYINGSUDUKUAI、WURANWUJIANGJIECHEDIDENGYOUDIAN。ERQIE,DANGDIANLIFUSHEYUYANGQI、CHOUYANGDENGCUIHUAYANGHUASHOUDUANLIANHESHIYONGSHI,HUICHANSHENG“XIETONGXIAOYING”。YINCI,FUSHEJISHUCHULIWURANWUSHIYIZHONGQINGJIEDE、KECHIXULIYONGDEJISHU,BEIGUOJIYUANZINENGJIGOULIEWEI21SHIJIHEPINGLIYONGYUANZINENGDEZHUYAOYANJIUFANGXIANG。

9.GUANGHUAXUECUIHUAYANGHUA

GUANGHUAXUECUIHUAYANGHUAJISHUSHIZAIGUANGHUAXUEYANGHUADEJICHUSHANGFAZHANQILAIDE,YUGUANGHUAXUEFAXIANGBI,YOUGENGQIANGDEYANGHUANENGLI,KESHIYOUJIWURANWUGENGCHEDIDIJIANGJIE。GUANGHUAXUECUIHUAYANGHUASHIZAIYOUCUIHUAJIDETIAOJIANXIADEGUANGHUAXUEJIANGJIE,YANGHUAJIZAIGUANGDEFUSHEXIACHANSHENGYANGHUANENGLIJIAOQIANGDEZIYOUJI。

催化剂有TiO2、ZnO、WO3、CdS、ZnS、SnO2和Fe3O4等。分为均相和非均相两种类型,均相光催化降解是以Fe2+或Fe3+及H2O2为介质,通过光助-Fenton反应产生羟基自由基使污染物得到降解;非均相催化降解是在污染体系中投入一定量的光敏半导体材料,如TiO2、ZnO等,同时结合光辐射,使光敏半导体在光的照射下激发产生电子—空穴对,吸附在半导体上的溶解氧、水分子等与电子—空穴作用,产生˙OH等氧化能力极强的自由基。TiO2光催化氧化技术在氧化降解水中有机污染物,特别是难降解有机污染物时有明显的优势

10.CHAOLINJIESHUIYANGHUA(scwo)JISHU

SCWO是以超临界水为介质,均相氧化分解有机物。可以在短时间内将有机污染物分解为CO2、H2O等无机小分子,而硫、磷和氮原子分别转化成硫酸盐、磷酸盐、硝酸根和亚硝酸根离子或氮气。美国把SCWO法列为能源与环境领域最有前途的废物处理技术。

SCWOFANYINGSULVKUAI、TINGLIUSHIJIANDUAN;YANGHUAXIAOLVGAO,DABUFENYOUJIWUCHULILVKEDA99%YISHANG;FANYINGQIJIEGOUJIANDAN,SHEBEITIJIXIAO;CHULIFANWEIGUANG,BUJINKEYIYONGYUGEZHONGYOUDUWUZHI、FEISHUI、FEIWUDECHULI,HAIKEYIYONGYUFENJIEYOUJIHUAHEWU;BUXUWAIJIEGONGRE,CHULICHENGBENDI;XUANZEXINGHAO,TONGGUODIAOJIEWENDUYUYALI,KEYIGAIBIANSHUIDEMIDU、ZHANDU、KUOSANXISHUDENGWUHUATEXING,CONGERGAIBIANQIDUIYOUJIWUDERONGJIEXINGNENG,DADAOXUANZEXINGDIKONGZHIFANYINGCHANWUDEMUDE。

CHAOLINJIEYANGHUAFAZAIMEIGUO、DEGUO、RUIDIAN、RIBENDENGOUMEIGUOJIAYIJINGYOULEGONGYIYINGYONG,DANZHONGGUODEYANJIUQIBUJIAOWAN,HAICHUYUSHIYANSHIYANJIUJIEDUAN。